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Popover

A popover is a non-modal dialog that floats around a trigger. It is used to display contextual information to the user, and should be paired with a clickable trigger element.

Properties

Features

  • Focus is managed and can be customized.
  • Supports modal and non-modal modes.
  • Ensures correct DOM order after tabbing out of the popover, whether it's portalled or not.

Installation

To use the popover machine in your project, run the following command in your command line:

npm install @zag-js/popover @zag-js/react # or yarn add @zag-js/popover @zag-js/react

This command will install the framework agnostic popover logic and the reactive utilities for your framework of choice.

Anatomy

To set up the popover correctly, you'll need to understand its anatomy and how we name its parts.

Each part includes a data-part attribute to help identify them in the DOM.

Usage

First, import the popover package into your project

import * as popover from "@zag-js/popover"

The popover package exports two key functions:

  • machine — The state machine logic for the popover widget.
  • connect — The function that translates the machine's state to JSX attributes and event handlers.

You'll need to provide a unique id to the useMachine hook. This is used to ensure that every part has a unique identifier.

Next, import the required hooks and functions for your framework and use the popover machine in your project 🔥

import { useId } from "react" import * as popover from "@zag-js/popover" import { useMachine, normalizeProps, Portal } from "@zag-js/react" export function Popover() { const [state, send] = useMachine(popover.machine({ id: useId() })) const api = popover.connect(state, send, normalizeProps) const Wrapper = api.portalled ? Portal : React.Fragment return ( <div> <button {...api.getTriggerProps()}>Click me</button> <Wrapper> <div {...api.getPositionerProps()}> <div {...api.getContentProps()}> <div {...api.getTitleProps()}>Presenters</div> <div {...api.getDescriptionProps()}>Description</div> <button>Action Button</button> <button {...api.getCloseTriggerProps()}>X</button> </div> </div> </Wrapper> </div> ) }

Rendering the popover in a portal

By default, the popover is rendered in the same DOM hierarchy as the trigger. To render the popover within a portal, pass portalled: true property to the machine's context.

Note: This requires that you render the component within a Portal based on the framework you use.

import * as popover from "@zag-js/popover" import { useMachine, normalizeProps, Portal } from "@zag-js/react" import * as React from "react" export function Popover() { const [state, send] = useMachine(popover.machine({ id: "1" })) const api = popover.connect(state, send, normalizeProps) return ( <div> <button {...api.getTriggerProps()}>Click me</button> <Portal> <div {...api.getPositionerProps()}> <div {...api.getContentProps()}> <div {...api.getTitleProps()}>Presenters</div> <div {...api.getDescriptionProps()}>Description</div> <button>Action Button</button> <button {...api.getCloseTriggerProps()}>X</button> </div> </div> </Portal> </div> ) }

Managing focus within popover

When the popover open, focus is automatically set to the first focusable element within the popover. To customize the element that should get focus, set the initialFocusEl property in the machine's context.

export function Popover() { // initial focused element ref const inputRef = useRef(null) const [state, send] = useMachine( popover.machine({ id: "1", initialFocusEl: () => inputRef.current, }), ) // ... return ( //... <input ref={inputRef} /> // ... ) }

Changing the modality

In some cases, you might want the popover to be modal. This means that it'll:

  • trap focus within its content
  • block scrolling on the body
  • disable pointer interactions outside the popover
  • hide content behind the popover from screen readers

To make the popover modal, set the modal: true property in the machine's context. When modal: true, we set the portalled attribute to true as well.

Note: This requires that you render the component within a Portal.

const [state, send] = useMachine( popover.machine({ modal: true, }), )

Close behavior

The popover is designed to close on blur and when the esc key is pressed.

To prevent it from closing on blur (clicking or focusing outside), pass the closeOnBlur property and set it to false.

const [state, send] = useMachine( popover.machine({ closeOnBlur: true, }), )

To prevent it from closing when the esc key is pressed, pass the closeOnEsc property and set it to false.

const [state, send] = useMachine( popover.machine({ closeOnEsc: true, }), )

Adding an arrow

To render an arrow within the popover, use the api.getArrowProps() and api.getArrowTipProps().

//... const api = popover.connect(state, send) //... return ( <div {...api.getPositionerProps()}> <div {...api.getArrowProps()}> <div {...api.getArrowTipProps()} /> </div> <div {...api.getContentProps()}>{/* ... */}</div> </div> ) //...

Changing the placement

To change the placment of the popover, set the positioning.placement property in the machine's context.

const [state, send] = useMachine( popover.machine({ positioning: { placement: "top-start", }, }), )

Listening for open state changes

When the popover is opened or closed, the onOpenChange callback is invoked.

const [state, send] = useMachine( popover.machine({ onOpenChange(details) { // details => { open: boolean } console.log("Popover", details.open) }, }), )

Usage within dialog

When using the popover within a dialog, avoid rendering the popover in a Portal or Teleport. This is because the dialog will trap focus within it, and the popover will be rendered outside the dialog.

Styling guide

Earlier, we mentioned that each popover part has a data-part attribute added to them to select and style them in the DOM.

Open and closed state

When the popover is expanded, we add a data-state and data-placement attribute to the trigger.

[data-part="trigger"][data-state="open|closed"] { /* styles for the expanded state */ } [data-part="content"][data-state="open|closed"] { /* styles for the expanded state */ } [data-part="trigger"][data-placement="(top|bottom)-(start|end)"] { /* styles for computed placement */ }

Position aware

When the popover is expanded, we add a data-state and data-placement attribute to the trigger.

[data-part="trigger"][data-placement="(top|bottom)-(start|end)"] { /* styles for computed placement */ } [data-part="content"][data-placement="(top|bottom)-(start|end)"] { /* styles for computed placement */ }

Arrow

The arrow element requires specific css variables to be set for it to show correctly.

[data-part="arrow"] { --arrow-background: white; --arrow-size: 16px; }

A common technique for adding a shadow to the arrow is to use set filter: drop-down(...) css property on the content element. Alternatively, you can use the --arrow-shadow-color variable.

[data-part="arrow"] { --arrow-shadow-color: gray; }

Methods and Properties

Machine Context

The popover machine exposes the following context properties:

  • idsPartial<{ anchor: string; trigger: string; content: string; title: string; description: string; closeTrigger: string; positioner: string; arrow: string; }>The ids of the elements in the popover. Useful for composition.
  • modalbooleanWhether the popover should be modal. When set to `true`: - interaction with outside elements will be disabled - only popover content will be visible to screen readers - scrolling is blocked - focus is trapped within the popover
  • portalledbooleanWhether the popover is portalled. This will proxy the tabbing behavior regardless of the DOM position of the popover content.
  • autoFocusbooleanWhether to automatically set focus on the first focusable content within the popover when opened.
  • initialFocusEl() => HTMLElementThe element to focus on when the popover is opened.
  • closeOnInteractOutsidebooleanWhether to close the popover when the user clicks outside of the popover.
  • closeOnEscapebooleanWhether to close the popover when the escape key is pressed.
  • onOpenChange(details: OpenChangeDetails) => voidFunction invoked when the popover opens or closes
  • positioningPositioningOptionsThe user provided options used to position the popover content
  • openbooleanWhether the popover is open
  • open.controlledbooleanWhether the popover is controlled by the user
  • idstringThe unique identifier of the machine.
  • getRootNode() => Node | ShadowRoot | DocumentA root node to correctly resolve document in custom environments. E.x.: Iframes, Electron.
  • dir"ltr" | "rtl"The document's text/writing direction.
  • onEscapeKeyDown(event: KeyboardEvent) => voidFunction called when the escape key is pressed
  • onPointerDownOutside(event: PointerDownOutsideEvent) => voidFunction called when the pointer is pressed down outside the component
  • onFocusOutside(event: FocusOutsideEvent) => voidFunction called when the focus is moved outside the component
  • onInteractOutside(event: InteractOutsideEvent) => voidFunction called when an interaction happens outside the component
  • persistentElements(() => Element)[]Returns the persistent elements that: - should not have pointer-events disabled - should not trigger the dismiss event

Machine API

The popover api exposes the following methods:

  • portalledbooleanWhether the popover is portalled.
  • openbooleanWhether the popover is open
  • setOpen(open: boolean) => voidFunction to open or close the popover
  • reposition(options?: Partial<PositioningOptions>) => voidFunction to reposition the popover

Data Attributes

Trigger
data-scope
popover
data-part
trigger
data-placement
The placement of the trigger
data-state
"open" | "closed"
Indicator
data-scope
popover
data-part
indicator
data-state
"open" | "closed"
Content
data-scope
popover
data-part
content
data-state
"open" | "closed"
data-expanded
Present when expanded
data-placement
The placement of the content

Accessibility

Adheres to the Dialog WAI-ARIA design pattern.

Keyboard Interactions

  • Space
    Opens/closes the popover.
  • Enter
    Opens/closes the popover.
  • Tab
    Moves focus to the next focusable element within the content.
    Note: If there are no focusable elements, focus is moved to the next focusable element after the trigger.
  • Shift + Tab
    Moves focus to the previous focusable element within the content
    Note: If there are no focusable elements, focus is moved to the trigger.
  • Esc
    Closes the popover and moves focus to the trigger.

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